Client: Almería XXI
Status: Competition (2023)
Clasification: 1 prize
Location: Almería, Spain
Climate: Mediterranean, Temperate
Materials: Plaster, Brick
Scale: 2.900 ㎡ Medium
Types: Housing, Residential
This project is being developed by commission of the Municipal Company Almería XXI as a result of winning the first prize in a public architecture competition. It involves the construction of a multi-family building for bioclimatic affordable housing.
The plot, a combination of different parcels, has a complex and irregular shape with many indentations and protrusions. Our main objective is to construct a residential building there in which all the houses have the best possible conditions, applying the principles of bioclimatic architecture in a warm environment like the city of Almería.
To ensure that all the houses have proper bioclimatic functionality, we propose a set of duplex homes, arranged around a central street that also functions as a courtyard for lighting and ventilation purposes. All the houses have dual orientation, cross ventilation, and enjoy an outdoor space with views (terrace and rooftop) that provides, in a climate like that of Almería, a magnificent space for relief for the housing units restricted in size due to V.P.O. regulations. The housing complex is located above a ground floor designated for commercial use and is completed with parking spaces and storage rooms in the basement.
Natural cross ventilation and rooftop with views
All the houses open up to two facades: the street and the central courtyard. Additionally, each of them has a terrace that extends from the living room and kitchen space, as well as a private rooftop crowning the houses, offering excellent views of the city of Almería. Thanks to this two-level configuration and dual orientation, we are promoting the natural circulation of air. The effect of cross ventilation is enhanced when the openings are not only on different facades but also at different heights. Through this chosen typology, we ensure that the entry of air occurs on one level and the exit on another. For proper nighttime cooling, this natural ventilation strategy is combined with appropriate use of thermal inertia.
The courtyard is also an exceptional bioclimatic phenomenon. It contributes to the cross ventilation strategy. Due to its orientation, it is protected from the prevailing winds of the area, effectively capturing the cold night air. This fresh air, being denser than warm air, remains in the courtyard during the day, releasing its coolness to the surrounding rooms.
Solar protection, cross ventilation, and thermal inertia
In addition to the described measures to eliminate overheating, we incorporate other preventive measures to reduce it, such as the use of lattice shutters to shade the windows and the implementation of a ventilation system in the roofs.